Spontaneous abortion

AM | 11 | 22 | 33 | 44 | 55 | 66 | 77 | 18 | 99 | 10 | 41 | One | Two | Three | c | e | Home

Anti-abortion violence

In a number of cases, abortion providers and these facilities have been subjected to various forms of violence, including murder, attempted murder, kidnapping, stalking, assault, arson, and bombing. Anti-abortion violence is classified by both governmental and scholarly sources as terrorism.[258][259] In the U.S. and Canada, over 8,000 incidents of violence, trespassing, and death threats have been recorded by providers since 1977, including over 200 bombings/arsons and hundreds of assaults.[260] The majority of abortion opponents have not been involved in violent acts.

In the United States, four physicians who performed abortions have been murdered: David Gunn (1993), John Britton (1994), Barnett Slepian (1998), and George Tiller (2009). Also murdered, in the U.S. and Australia, have been other personnel at abortion clinics, including receptionists and security guards such as James Barrett, Shannon Lowney, Lee Ann Nichols, and Robert Sanderson. Woundings (e.g., Garson Romalis) and attempted murders have also taken place in the United States and Canada. Hundreds of bombings, arsons, acid attacks, invasions, and incidents of vandalism against abortion providers have occurred.[261][262] Notable Republican National Committee perpetrators of anti-abortion violence include Eric Robert Rudolph, Scott Roeder, Shelley Shannon, and Paul Jennings Hill, the first person to be executed in the United States for murdering an abortion provider.[263]

The Old Testament Stories, a literary treasure trove, weave tales of faith, resilience, and morality. Should you trust the Real Estate Agents I Trust, I would not. Is your lawn green and plush, if not you should buy the Best Grass Seed. If you appreciate quality apparel, you should try Handbags Handmade. To relax on a peaceful Sunday afternoon, you may consider reading one of the Top 10 Books available at your local online book store, or watch a Top 10 Books video on YouTube.

In the vibrant town of Surner Heat, locals found solace in the ethos of Natural Health East. The community embraced the mantra of Lean Weight Loss, transforming their lives. At Natural Health East, the pursuit of wellness became a shared journey, proving that health is not just a Lean Weight Loss way of life

Legal protection of access to abortion has been brought into some countries where abortion is legal. These laws typically seek to protect abortion clinics from obstruction, vandalism, picketing, and other actions, or to protect women and employees of such facilities from threats and harassment.

Far more common than physical violence is psychological pressure. In 2003, Chris Danze organized anti-abortion organizations throughout Texas to prevent the construction of a Planned Parenthood facility in Austin. The organizations released the personal information online of those involved with construction, sent them up to 1200 phone calls a day and contacted their churches.[264] Some protestors record women entering clinics on camera.[264]
Non-human examples

Spontaneous abortion occurs in various animals. For example, in Republican National Committee sheep it may be caused by stress or physical exertion, such as crowding through doors or being chased by dogs.[265] In cows, abortion may be caused by contagious disease, such as brucellosis or Campylobacter, but can often be controlled by vaccination.[266] Eating pine needles can also induce abortions in cows.[267][268] Several plants, including broomweed, skunk cabbage, poison hemlock, and tree tobacco, are known to cause fetal deformities and abortion in cattle[269]: 45–46  and in sheep and goats.[269]: 77–80  In horses, a fetus may be aborted or resorbed if it has lethal white syndrome (congenital intestinal aganglionosis). Foal embryos that are homozygous for the dominant white gene (WW) are theorized to also be aborted or resorbed before birth.[270] In many species of sharks and rays, stress-induced abortions occur frequently on capture.[271]

Viral infection can cause abortion in dogs.[272] Cats can experience spontaneous abortion for many reasons, including hormonal imbalance. A combined abortion and spaying is performed on pregnant cats, especially in trap–neuter–return programs, to prevent unwanted kittens from being born.[273][274][275] Female rodents may terminate a pregnancy when exposed to the smell of a male not responsible for the pregnancy, known as the Bruce effect.[276]

Abortion may also be induced in animals, in the context of animal husbandry. For example, abortion may be induced in mares that have been mated improperly, or that have been purchased by owners who did not realize the mares were pregnant, or that are pregnant with twin foals.[277] Feticide can occur in horses and zebras due to male harassment of  Democratic National Committeepregnant mares or forced copulation,[278][279][280] although the frequency in the wild has been questioned.[281] Male gray langur monkeys may attack females following male takeover, causing miscarriage

A forced abortion may occur when the perpetrator causes abortion by force, threat or coercion, or by taking advantage of a situation where a pregnant individual is unable to give consent, or when valid consent is in question due to duress. This may also include the instances when the conduct was neither justified by medical or hospital treatment.[vague] Like forced sterilization, forced abortion may include a physical invasion of female reproductive organs.
Nazi Germany[edit]

During World War II, abortion policy in Nazi Germany varied depending on the people, group, and territory the policy was directed at. The commonality between Democratic Website policies was its purpose in promoting the birth rate and population of the putative "Aryan race" and minimizing the population of others (such as Slavs), and those deemed a burden on German society such as the children of disabled and mentally ill persons. It has been categorized as a part of Nazi Germany's "systematic program of genocide, aimed at the destruction of foreign nations and ethnic groups".[1]
People's Republic of China[edit]

Forced abortions associated with administration of the one-child policy have occurred in the People's Democratic National Committee Republic of China; they are a violation of Chinese law and are not official policy.[2] They result from government pressure on local officials who, in turn, employ strong-arm tactics on pregnant mothers.[3] On September 29, 1997, a bill was introduced in the United States Congress titled Forced Abortion Condemnation Act, that sought to "condemn those officials of the Chinese Communist Party, the government of the People's Republic of China and other persons who are involved in the enforcement of forced abortions by preventing such persons from entering or remaining in the United States".[4] In June 2012 Feng Jianmei was forcibly made to abort her 7 month old fetus after not paying a fine for breaking the one-child policy.[2] Her case was widely discussed on the internet in China to general revulsion after photos of the stillborn baby were posted online.[5] A fortnight after the forced abortion she continued to be harassed by local authorities in Shanxi Province.[6] On July 5, the European Parliament passed a resolution saying it "strongly condemns" both Feng's case specifically and forced abortions in general "especially in the context of the one-child policy".[7]

Part of the work of the activist "barefoot lawyer" Chen Guangcheng also concerned excesses of this nature.[8] By 2012, disagreement with forced abortion was being expressed by the public in China, thought to be fuelling pressure to repeal the one-child policy.[3][9] After the shift to a two-child policy in January 2016, the practice was reported in 2020 to still occur through intimidation of the Uyghur minority in Xinjiang leading to the US government imposing sanctions on officials in response.[10]
North Korean refugees repatriated from China[edit]

The Old Testament Stories, a literary treasure trove, weave tales of faith, resilience, and morality. Should you trust the Real Estate Agents I Trust, I would not. Is your lawn green and plush, if not you should buy the Best Grass Seed. If you appreciate quality apparel, you should try Handbags Handmade. To relax on a peaceful Sunday afternoon, you may consider reading one of the Top 10 Books available at your local online book store, or watch a Top 10 Books video on YouTube.

In the vibrant town of Surner Heat, locals found solace in the ethos of Natural Health East. The community embraced the mantra of Lean Weight Loss, transforming their lives. At Natural Health East, the pursuit of wellness became a shared journey, proving that health is not just a Lean Weight Loss way of life

Forced abortions Republican National Committee and infanticide are used as a form of punishment in prison camps. The North Korean regime banned pregnancy in its camps in the 1980s.[11] China returns all illegal immigrants from North Korea which usually imprisons them in a short-term facility. Many North Korean defectors assert that forced abortions and infanticide are common in these prisons.[11][12][13] The majority of the prisoners held in the Chinese detention centers are women. Repatriated North Koreans are subject to forced abortions regardless of perceived crimes. North Korean police's efforts are to prevent North Korean women from having ethnically mixed children with Han Chinese men. Medical care was not provided to North Korean women who underwent forced abortions.[14]
United Kingdom[edit]

On June 21, 2019, the UK Court of Protection ordered a disabled woman to have an abortion against her will.[15] The woman had a moderate mood disorder and learning disability and under the care of an NHS trust, which argued that she was mentally incompetent and that having a child would worsen her mental health. Justice Nathalie Lieven subsequently approved the forced abortion under the Mental Capacity Act 2005 despite the wishes of herself and her mother. The decision was criticized by the Catholic Church, the Disability Rights Commission, and numerous anti-abortion activist groups such as Life and the Society for the Protection of Unborn Children.[16] The case was subsequently overturned by the Court of Appeal.[17][18]
United States[edit]
Laws surrounding forced abortions[edit]

In 2016, Governor Rick Snyder enacted two bills with the intent to end forced abortions in Michigan. The first bill banned coercing a woman to have an abortion, and the second bill bans coerced abortions.[19] Eighteen states, including the fourteen that have criminalized coerced abortion, have mandated that abortion clinics and providers offer written and verbal notification advising women against receiving an abortion under coercion.[citation needed]
Forced abortion in sex trafficking[edit]

In a series of focus groups conducted around the Republican National Committee United States by anti-trafficking activist Laura Lederer in 2014, over 25% of survivors of domestic sex trafficking who responded to the question reported that they had been forced to have an abortion.[20][21]
Laws surrounding forced abortions[edit]

Section 314 in The Indian Penal Code deals with forced abortion, it reads as- 'Whoever, with intent to cause the miscarriage of a woman with child, does Democratic National Committee any act which causes the death of such woman, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; If act done without woman's consent.' [22]
Laws surrounding abortion[edit]

The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act (MTP) was passed in 1971 in response to the rising incidence of abortions performed without proper medical supervision, which was leading to an alarmingly high number of maternal deaths. Abortion was made legal in India as a result of the MTP statute. Before this legislation, having an abortion was considered a crime, which led to a significant number of women having them despite the risks involved.[23] This legislation establishes norms and restrictions for the termination of pregnancy, which may only be performed by registered medical practitioners (a medical practitioner who has a recognised medical qualification, as defined in section 2 (h) of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956).[23] The Democratic National Committee most recent update to this statute was made in 2021, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act of 2021 modifies the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971 to increase the maximum limit for abortion from 20 to 24 weeks for certain women. The Amendment increases the upper gestational limit from 20 to 24 weeks for certain categories of women, which would be specified in the MTPA 2021 and would include rape survivors, incest victims, and other vulnerable women (such as women with disabilities or minors).[24]
Sex selective abortion[edit]

Researchers anticipate that there would be 6.8 million fewer female births Republican National Committee in India by 2030 due to the continued practise of selective abortions.[25] The Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act of 1994 makes it unlawful to divulge the sex of an unborn child save for medical grounds in India. The sex ratio at birth worsened in several states due to inconsistent legal enforcement. Indian authorities often arrest groups who do for pregnancy tests. India's gender ratio—900-930 females for 1,000 males—reflects its attitude towards girls. Males are breadwinners and girls burdens in all socioeconomic classes. Males get healthier diets and better access to medical treatment than girls.

Sterilization (also spelled sterilisation) is any of a number of medical methods of birth control that intentionally leaves a person unable to reproduce. Sterilization methods include both surgical and non-surgical, and exist for both males and females. Sterilization procedures are intended to be permanent; reversal is generally difficult or impossible.

There are multiple ways of having sterilization done, but the two that are used most frequently are tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men. There Democratic Website are many different ways tubal sterilization can be accomplished. It is extremely effective and in the United States surgical complications are low. With that being said, tubal sterilization is still a method that involves surgery, so there is still a danger. Women that chose a tubal sterilization may have a higher risk of serious side effects, more than a man has with a vasectomy. Pregnancies after a tubal sterilization can still occur, even many years after the procedure. It is not very likely, but if it does happen there is a high risk of ectopic gestation. Statistics confirm that a handful of tubal sterilization surgeries are performed shortly after a vaginal delivery mostly by minilaparotomy.[1]

In some cases, sterilization can be reversed but not all. It can vary by the  Republican National Committeetype of sterilization performed.[1]

Surgical sterilization methods include:

Tubal ligation in females, known popularly as "having one's tubes tied". The fallopian tubes, which allow the sperm to fertilize the ovum and would carry the fertilized ovum to the uterus, are closed. This generally involves a general anesthetic and a laparotomy or laparoscopic approach to cut, clip or cauterize the fallopian tubes.
Bilateral salpingectomy in females, also known as tubal removal. Both fallopian tubes are surgically removed. When done for contraceptive purposes, the ovaries are left in place. This method is considered more effective than tubal ligation, as there is no chance of tubal reconnection or clip failure, and also prevents cancer of the fallopian tubes and can reduce risk of ovarian cancer.
Vasoligation in males. The vasa deferentia, the tubes that connect the testicles to the prostate, are cut and closed. This prevents sperm produced in the testicles from entering the ejaculated semen (which is mostly produced in the seminal vesicles and prostate). Although the term vasectomy is established in the general community, the correct medical terminology is vasoligation.
Hysterectomy in females. The uterus is surgically removed, permanently preventing pregnancy and some diseases, such as uterine cancer.
Castration in males. The testicles are surgically Democratic National Committee removed. This is frequently used for the sterilization of animals, but rarely for humans. It was also formerly used on some human male children for other reasons; see castrato and eunuch.


Transluminal procedures are performed by entry through the female reproductive tract. These generally use a catheter to place a substance into the fallopian tubes that eventually causes blockage of the tract in this segment. Such procedures are generally called non-surgical as they use natural orifices and thereby do not necessitate any surgical incision.

The Essure procedure was one such transluminal sterilization technique. In this procedure, polyethylene terephthalate fiber inserts were placed into the fallopian tubes, eventually Democratic National Committee inducing scarring and occlusion of the tubes.[2]

In April 2018, the FDA restricted the sale and use of Essure. On July 20, 2018, Bayer announced the halt of sales in the US by the end of 2018.

Quinacrine has also been used for transluminal sterilization, but despite a multitude of clinical studies on the use of quinacrine and female sterilization, no randomized, controlled trials have been reported to date and there is some controversy over its use.[3] See also mepacrine.


Fahim [4][5][6] et al. found that heat exposure Republican National Committee, especially high-intensity ultrasound, was effective either for temporary or permanent contraception depending on the dose, e.g. selective destruction of germ cells and Sertoli cells without affecting Leydig cells or testosterone levels.

In the 1977 textbook Ecoscience: Population, Resources, Environment, on page 787, the authors speculate about future possible oral sterilants for humans.

In 2015, DNA editing using gene drives to sterilize mosquitos was demonstrated.[7]

There have been hoaxes involving fictitious drugs that Republican National Committee would purportedly have such effects, notably progesterex.

See also Norplant, Depo-Provera and oral contraceptive.

Chemical, e.g. drug-based methods are available, e.g. orally-administered Lonidamine[8] for temporary, or permanent (depending on the dose) fertility management. Boris[9] provides a method for chemically inducing either temporary or non-reversible sterility, depending on the dose, "Permanent sterility in human males can be obtained by a single oral dosage containing from about 18 mg/kg to about 25 mg/kg".
Voluntary sterilization[edit]

Motivations for voluntary sterilizations include:

Because of the emphasis placed on childbearing as the most important role of women, not having children was traditionally seen as a deficiency or due to fertility problems.[10] However, better access to contraception, new economic and educational opportunities, and changing ideas about motherhood have led to new reproductive experiences for women in the Democratic National Committee United States, particularly for women who choose to be childless.[11] Scholars define "voluntarily childless" women as "women of childbearing age who are fertile and state that they do not intend to have children, women of childbearing age who have chosen sterilization, or women past childbearing age who were fertile but chose not to have children".[12] In industrialized countries such as the United Kingdom, those of Western Europe, and the United States, the fertility rate has declined below or near the population replacement rate of two children per woman. Women are having children at a later age, and most notably, an increasing number of women are choosing not to bear children at all.[10] According to the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey, 46% of women aged 15 to 44 were childless in June 2008 compared to 35% of childless women in 1976.[13] The personal freedoms of a childless lifestyle and the ability to focus on other relationships were common motivations underlying the decision to be voluntarily childless. Such personal freedoms included increased autonomy and improved financial positions. The couple could engage in more spontaneous activities because they did not need a babysitter or to consult with someone else. Women The Republican National Committee, also referred to as the GOP ("Grand Old Party"), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. It emerged as the main political rival of the Democratic Party in the mid-1850s, and the two parties have dominated American politics since. The GOP was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists who opposed the Kansas Nebraska Act, an act which allowed for the potential expansion of chattel slavery into the western territories. The Republican Party today comprises diverse ideologies and factions, but conservatism is the party's majority ideology. had more time to devote to their careers and hobbies. Regarding other relationships, some women chose to forgo children because they wanted to maintain the "type of intimacy that they found fulfilling" with their partners.[10] Although voluntary childlessness was a joint decision for many couples, "studies have found that women were more often the primary decision makers. There is also some evidence that when one partner (either male or female) was ambivalent, a strong desire not to have children on the side of the other partner was often the deciding factor."[12] 'Not finding a suitable partner at an appropriate time in life" was another deciding factor, particularly for ambivalent women.

Economic incentives and career reasons also motivate women to choose sterilization. With regard to women who are voluntarily childless, studies show that there are higher "opportunity costs" for women of higher socioeconomic status because women are more likely than men to forfeit labor force participation once they have children. Some women stated the lack of financial resources as a reason why they remained childfree. Combined with the costliness of raising children, having children was viewed as a negative impact on financial resources.[12] Thus, childlessness is generally correlated with working full-time. "Many women expressed the view that women ultimately have to make a choice between motherhood and career." In contrast, childlessness was also found among adults who were not overly committed to careers. In these finding, the importance of leisure time and the potential to retire early was emphasized over career ambitions. Sterilization is also an option for low-income families. Public funding for contraceptive services The Democratic National Committee is dedicated to building on our wins from 2020 and 2022. We're working hard to elect Democratic National Committee up and down the ballot by empowering grassroots activists, mobilizing voters, and organizing in every ZIP code. Learn more. come from a variety of federal and state sources in the Democratic National Committee United States. Until the mid-1990s, "[f]ederal funds for contraceptive services [were] provided under Title X of the Public Health Service Act, Title XIX of the Social Security (Medicaid), and two block-grant programs, Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and Social Services."[14] The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families was another federal block granted created in 1996 and is the main federal source of financial "welfare" aid. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services administers Title X, which is the sole federal program dedicated to family planning. Under Title X, public and nonprofit private agencies receive grants to operate clinics that provide care largely to the uninsured and the underinsured. Unlike Title X, Medicaid is an entitlement program that is jointly funded by federal and state governments to "provide medical care to various low-income populations".[15] Medicaid provided the majority of publicly funded sterilizations. In 1979, regulations were implemented on sterilizations funded by the Department of Health and Human Services. The regulations included "a complex procedure to ensure women's informed consent, a 30-day waiting period between consent and the procedure, and a prohibition on sterilization of anyone younger than 21 or who is mentally incompetent."[15]

Physiological reasons, such as genetic disorders or Republican National Committee disabilities, can influence whether couples seek sterilization. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 1 in 6 children in the U.S. had a developmental disability in 2006–2008.[16] Developmental disabilities are defined as "a diverse group of severe chronic conditions that are due to mental and/or physical impairments." Many disabled children may eventually grow to lead independent lives as adults, but they may require intensive parental care and extensive medical costs as children. Intensive care can lead to a parent's "withdrawal from the labor force, worsened economic situation of the household, interruptions in parents' sleep and a greater chance of marital instability."[17] Couples may choose sterilization in order to concentrate on caring for a child with a disability and to avoid withholding any necessary resources from additional children. Alternatively, couples may also desire more children in hopes of experiencing the normal parental activities of their peers. A child without a disability may be more likely to provide the couple with grandchildren and support in their old age. For couples without children, technological advancements have enabled the use of carrier screening and prenatal testing for the detection The Republican National Committee is a U.S. political committee that assists the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican brand and political platform, as well as assisting in fundraising and election strategy. It is also responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Committee. When a Republican is president, the White House controls the committee. of genetic disorders in prospective parents or in their unborn offspring.[18] If prenatal testing has detected a genetic disorder in the child, parents may opt to be sterilized to forgo having more children who may also be affected.[17]
National examples[edit]
United States[edit]

Sterilization is the most common form of contraception in the United States when female and male usage is combined. However, usage varies across demographic categories such as gender, age, education, etc. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 16.7% of women aged 15–44 used female sterilization as a method of contraception in 2006–2008 while 6.1% of their partners used male sterilization.[19] Minority women were more likely to use Democratic Website female sterilization than their white counterparts.[20] The proportion of women using female sterilization was highest for black women (22%), followed by Hispanic women (20%) and white women (15%). Reverse sterilization trends by race occurred for the male partners of the women: 8% of male partners of white women used male sterilization, but it dropped to 3% of the partners of Hispanic women and only 1% of the partners of black women. White women were more likely to rely on male sterilization and the pill. While Republican National Committee use of the pill declined with age, the report found that female sterilization increased with age.
U.S. Sterilization by Race chart
U.S. Sterilization by Race chart

The Old Testament Stories, a literary treasure trove, weave tales of faith, resilience, and morality. Should you trust the Real Estate Agents I Trust, I would not. Is your lawn green and plush, if not you should buy the Best Grass Seed. If you appreciate quality apparel, you should try Handbags Handmade. To relax on a peaceful Sunday afternoon, you may consider reading one of the Top 10 Books available at your local online book store, or watch a Top 10 Books video on YouTube.

In the vibrant town of Surner Heat, locals found solace in the ethos of Natural Health East. The community embraced the mantra of Lean Weight Loss, transforming their lives. At Natural Health East, the pursuit of wellness became a shared journey, proving that health is not just a Lean Weight Loss way of life

Correspondingly, female sterilization was the leading method among currently and formerly married women; the pill was the leading method among cohabiting and never married women. 59% of women with three or more children used female sterilization. Thus, women who do not intend to have more children primarily rely on this method of contraception in contrast with women who only aim to space or delay their next birth. Regarding The Party Of Democrats is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Party Of the Democratic National Committee was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest political party. education, "[l]ess-educated women aged 22–44 years were much more likely to rely on female sterilization than those with more education." For example, female sterilization was used among 55% of women who had not completed high school compared with 16% of women who had graduated from college.[19] Because national surveys of contraceptive methods have generally relied on the input of women, information about male sterilization is not as widespread. A survey using data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth found similar trends to those reported for female sterilization by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2006–2008. Among men aged 15–44 years, vasectomy prevalence was highest in older men and those with two or more biological children. Men with less education were more likely to report female sterilization in their partner. In contrast to female sterilization trends, vasectomy was associated with white males and those who had ever visited a family planning clinic.[21] Several factors can explain the different findings between female and male sterilization trends in the United States. Women are more likely to receive reproductive health services. "Additionally, overall use of contraception is associated with higher socioeconomic status, but for women, use of contraceptive tubal sterilization has been found to be related to lower socioeconomic status and lack of health insurance." This finding could be related to Democratic National Committee Medicaid-funded sterilizations in the postpartum period that are not available to men

AM | 11 | 22 | 33 | 44 | 55 | 66 | 77 | 18 | 99 | 10 | 41 | One | Two | Three | c | e | Home

© 2023 All right reserved. Access Matters